NO. 366 PIONEER TELEGRAPH STATION - Erroneously called the Pony Express Terminal, this was the location of the office occupied by the State Telegraph Company, 1863-1868, and the Western Union Telegraph Company, 1868-1915.
Location: 1015-2nd St, Old Sacramento, Sacramento
NO. 439 SITE OF GRIST MILL BUILT BY JARED DIXON SHELDON, 1846-47 - Jared Dixon (Joaquin) Sheldon built his grist mill on Omochumnes Rancho, granted to him by the Mexican government in 1823. Born in Vermont on January 8, 1813, Sheldon came to California in 1832. He was shot July 11,1851 in a quarrel over a dam he had built that flooded miners' claims.
Location: Intersection of Meiss Rd and Hwy 16, 100 ft W of Sloughhouse
NO. 464 PRAIRIE CITY - Site of Prairie City, mining town and center of trade in California's gold rush days. In July 1853, at the height of its prosperity, Prairie City included 15 stores and 10 boarding houses and hotels, two stage lines operated daily. A quartz mill that cost $50,000 to build operated here in the 1850s.
Location: NE corner of Prairie City Rd, 500 ft N of State Hwy 50.
NO. 468 MICHIGAN BAR - Now practically obliterated by hydraulic and dredging operations, the booming town of Michigan Bar once contained 1,500 population. Gold was discovered here in 1849 by citizens of Michigan, after whom the settlement was named. Pottery works, once largest in the state, were located here, and town contained a post office and Wells Fargo agency.
Location: State Hwy 16, (P.M. 22.4) 0.1 mi E of Michigan Bar Rd
NO. 525 SUTTER'S FORT - John Augustus Sutter, born of Swiss parents in Germany, arrived in New York in July 1834 and in California in July 1839. He founded the fort in 1839 to protect 'New Helvetia,' his 76-square-mile Mexican land grant. Of the original fort, the two-story central building, made of adobe and oak, remains, the fort's outer walls and rooms, which had disappeared by the 1860s, were reconstructed after the State acquired the property in 1890.
Location: Sutter's Fort State Historic Park, 27th and L Sts, Sacramento
NO. 526 CALIFORNIA'S FIRST PASSENGER RAILROAD - The Sacramento Valley Railroad, running from Sacramento to Folsom, was begun at this site on February 12, 1855. The passenger terminal was located here, the turntable and freight depot were at Third and Front Streets. Completion of the railroad was celebrated at Folsom on February 22, 1856.
Location: SW corner of 3rd and R Sts, Sacramento
NO. 558 TERMINAL OF CALIFORNIA'S FIRST PASSENGER RAILROAD - Completion of the 22-mile Sacramento Valley Railroad line from Sacramento to Folsom was celebrated here February 22, 1856 by enthusiastic residents of both cities. The new line, commenced February 12,1855, was built by noted pioneer engineer Theodore Dehone Judah.
Location: Leidesdorff Plaza, NE corner of intersection of Reading and Sutter, Folsom
NO. 566 SACRAMENTO CITY CEMETERY - Resting place of California pioneers, this cemetery was established in 1850. Many of the victims of the cholera epidemic of that year are buried here. Included among the graves of illustrious Californians are those of John Bigler, Newton Booth, and William Irwin, Governors of California, General George Wright, hero of the Mexican War, Mark Hopkins, cobuilder of the Central Pacific Railroad, General Albert M. Winn, founder of the Native Sons of the Golden West, Hardin Bigelow, first mayor of Sacramento, William S. Hamilton, son of Alexander Hamilton, E. B. Crocker, founder of the Crocker Art Gallery, and Reverend O. C. Wheeler, organizer in 1850 of the first Baptist Church.
Location: SW corner of Broadway and 10th Sts, Sacramento
NO. 575 SLOUGHHOUSE - Sloughhouse, prominent hotel and stage station on the road to the Amador mines, was a favorite stopping place for travelers such as Leland Stanford. Constructed in 1850 by Jared Dixon Sheldon, it was destroyed by fire in 1890 and rebuilt the same year. Many descendants of pioneers of the community of Sloughhouse, which developed near Sheldon's establishment, still live in this fertile valley of the Cosumnes.
Location: Intersection of Meiss St & Hwy 16, near flagpole, Sloughhouse
NO. 591 SUTTER'S LANDING - Captain John A. Sutter, after coming up the Sacramento River from Yerba Buena in August 1839, landed approximately two hundred feet north of here, at what was then the south bank of the American River. A short time thereafter he established a permanent camp, and later built his fort. Sutter and his men were the first non-Indian settlers within the present city limits of Sacramento.
Location: NE corner of 28th and C Sts, in Stanford Park, Sacramento
NO. 592 NEW HELVETIA CEMETERY - This was the site of Sacramento's first cemetery, established by Captain John A. Sutter in 1849.
Location: NE corner of Alhambra Blvd and J St, Sacramento
NO. 593 SUTTERVILLE - Sutter laid out a townsite here in 1844, about two miles below the embarcadero. In 1847, George Zins built one of the first brick structures erected in California here.
Location: Sutterville Rd, vicinity of Land Park Dr, Sacramento
NO. 594 SITE OF CHINA SLOUGH - The site of the slough, which formerly extended from 3rd to 5th Streets and north of I Street in Sacramento, is now occupied by the Southern Pacific depot.
Location: SP Depot, NE corner of 4th and I Sts, Sacramento
NO. 595 EAGLE THEATER - This is the site of the first building in California constructed as a theater in 1849. The theater was reconstructed in 1974.
Location: Old Sacramento State Historic Park, 925 Front St, Sacramento
NO. 596 SITE OF HOME OF NEWTON BOOTH - This is the site of the store and home of Newton Booth, Governor of California 1871-1873 and U.S. Senator 1873-1879.
Location: 1015-17 Front St, Sacramento
NO. 597 WHAT CHEER HOUSE - The celebrated hotel was constructed on this site in 1853. State offices were located here in 1855.
Location: SE corner of Front and K Sts, Sacramento
NO. 598 SITE OF STAGE AND RAILROAD (FIRST) - This is the site of the terminal of stages of the 1850s and of the Sacramento Valley Railroad in 1855.
Location: Old Sacramento State Historic Park, NW corner of Front and K Sts, Sacramento
NO. 599 E. B. CROCKER ART GALLERY - This building was erected in 1870 to house the private art collection of Judge and Mrs. E. B. Crocker. The building and its contents were donated to the City of Sacramento in 1884 by Mrs. Crocker.
Location: 216 O St, Sacramento
NO. 600 HEADQUARTERS OF THE BIG FOUR - (This landmark number has been retired and this landmark site is now included as part of the registration of Old Sacramento, Landmark No. 812.)
NO. 601 WESTERN HOTEL - Constructed by William Land in 1875, this hotel was one of the largest in the West. It was built on sites of earlier hotels of 1853-1854.
Location: Parking lot, 200 ft NE of intersection of 2nd and K Sts, Sacramento
NO. 602 EBNER'S HOTEL - This hotel was built by Charles Ebner in 1856. It is said that Captain Sutter was a frequent visitor here.
Location: 116 1/2 K St, Old Sacramento
NO. 603 LADY ADAMS BUILDING - This store and office building was erected in 1852 from materials brought around the Horn in the ship Lady Adams.
Location: 117-19 K St, Old Sacramento
NO. 604 SITE OF SAM BRANNAN HOUSE - This building, erected by Henry E. Robinson in 1853 on land owned by Sam Brannan, was used as the first meeting place of the Pioneer Association and other organizations of early days.
Location: 112 J St, Old Sacramento
NO. 605 SITE OF SACRAMENTO UNION - Erected in 1851, this structure was occupied by the Sacramento Union in 1852. The newspaper began its career March 19, 1851 at 21 J Street, Sacramento.
Location: 121 J St, Old Sacramento
NO. 606 B. F. HASTINGS BUILDING - This structure, erected in 1852-53, was occupied during the 1850s by the B. F. Hastings Bank, Wells Fargo & Co., various state officials, the Sacramento Valley Railroad, and the Alta Telegraph Co. During April 1860-May 1861, the Alta Telegraph Co. and its successor, the California State Telegraph Co., were the agents here for the Central Overland Pony Express, owned and operated by the firm of Russell, Majors, and Waddell. The first overland journey eastward of the Pony Express was begun from this historic site on April 4, 1860.
Location: 1000 2nd St, plaque located on wall at 2nd St, between J and I Sts, Old Sacramento
NO. 607 ADAMS AND COMPANY BUILDING - Erected in the fall of 1853, this building was occupied during 1853-1855 by Adams and Co.'s express and banking house. The Alta Telegraph Co., California State Telegraph Co., Pacific Express Co., California Stage Co., Sacramento City Bank, and Wells Fargo & Co. also had offices here in the 1850s. During May-October 1861, Wells Fargo & Co. were agents here of the western portion of the Central Overland Pony Express until it was discontinued on October 26, 1861 on completion of the transcontinental telegraph.
Location: 1014-2nd St, Old Sacramento
NO. 608 SITE OF ORLEANS HOTEL - This hotel, erected in 1852, served as a depot for stage companies and others.
Location: 1018-2nd St, Old Sacramento
NO. 609 D. O. MILLS BANK BUILDING - Erected in 1852, this building housed one of the oldest and largest banks of early-day California.
Location: 100 ft from SE corner of intersection of 2nd and J Sts, Old Sacramento
NO. 610 OVERTON BUILDING - This building was constructed in 1852 and was occupied in the 1850s by various state offices and commercial companies.
Location: Parking lot, 300 ft NE of intersection of 2nd and J Sts, Old Sacramento
NO. 611 ORIGINAL SACRAMENTO BEE BUILDING - The Sacramento Bee was founded in 1857, its first issue was dated February 3, 1857. Its early home was in this two-story brick building on the west side of Third Street.
Location: Under N-bound offramp of I-5, W side of 3rd St between J and K Sts, Sacramento
NO. 612 SITE OF PIONEER MUTUAL VOLUNTEER FIREHOUSE - Erected in 1854, this structure was occupied by Engine Co. No. 1, the oldest fire company of California.
Location: 200 ft NE of intersection of 3rd and J Sts, Sacramento
NO. 613 SITE OF CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH - In 1849, the Rev. Joseph A. Benton organized the first church in Sacramento.
Location: 915-6th St, Sacramento
NO. 614 STANFORD-LATHROP HOME - The house was originally designed in 1857 by Seth Babson and was purchased by Leland Stanford in 1861. It served as the state executive office from 1861 to 1867, before the completion of the State Capitol. It was later extensively remodeled and enlarged. In 1900 Jane Lathrop Stanford gave the house to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sacramento to create the Stanford-Lathrop Memorial Home for Friendless Children.
Location: Leland Stanford Mansion State Historic Park, 800 N St, Sacramento
NO. 633 OLD FOLSOM POWERHOUSE - In the 1850s, Horatio Gates Livermore and later his sons, Horatio P. and Charles E., pioneered the development of ditches and dams on the American River for industry and agriculture. One historic result was Folsom Powerhouse, which began operations in July 1895. Power was delivered to Sacramento at 11,000 volts, a new achievement in long-distance high-voltage transmission which the capital celebrated by a grand electric carnival September 9, 1895. The original generating plant, still in place, remained in continuous operation until 1952. The plant was donated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. to the State of California to preserve its historical values.
Location: Folsom Powerhouse State Park, Greenback Lane, Folsom
NO. 633-2 OLD FOLSOM POWERHOUSE-SACRAMENTO STATION A - The first distribution point of electricity for a major city, Station A was constructed in 1894 by the Sacramento Electric Power and Light Company to receive power generated from Folsom Powerhouse. The first transmission of electricity was on July 13, 1895. This power distribution network resulted in the first overhead wire streetcar system in the Central Valley.
Location: NE corner of 6th and H Sts, Sacramento
NO. 654 SITE OF THE FIRST JEWISH SYNAGOGUE OWNED BY A CONGREGATION ON THE PACIFIC COAST - The building that stood on this site was prefabricated in Baltimore and shipped around Cape Horn in 1849. It originally housed the Methodist Episcopal Church, whose trustees sold the edifice on June 4, 1852 to Alexander Myer, Joseph Levison, and Charles Friedman, Officers of the Association of the Children of Israel (B'nai Israel), to serve as the first synagogue on the Pacific Coast, dedicated on September 3, 1852. The congregation followed the orthodox tradition until 1880, when it became an adherent of reform Judaism.
Location: In sidewalk, 7th St between Capitol and L, Sacramento
NO. 654-1 CHEVRA KADDISHA (HOME OF PEACE CEMETERY) - This site was the first Jewish cemetery in California. On November 12, 1850, R. J. Watson gave a Deed of Trust to Louis Schaul: 'Lot number four in the square between thirty-second and thirty-third and J and K Streets . . . for the Sacramento City Hebrew Association for a burial ground.'
Location: 3230 J St, Sacramento
NO. 657 GRAVE OF ALEXANDER HAMILTON WILLARD - Willard, a native of New Hampshire who died March 6, 1865, was perhaps the last survivor of the exploring party sent out by President Jefferson under Captain Meriwether Lewis to discover the course and sources of the Missouri River.
Location: Franklin Cemetery, Franklin
NO. 666 CAMP UNION, SUTTERVILLE - Organized here on October 8, 1861, the 5th Infantry Regiment, California Volunteers was trained by Brevet Brigadier General George W. Bowie for duty against Confederate forces in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. The troops aided the stricken capital in this year of the great flood. Company F (Sacramento Rangers), 2nd Cavalry Regiment, California Volunteers, organized in Sacramento August 29, 1861, later served here. This company furnished a large number of officers for other units of the California Volunteers.
Location: NE corner of Sutterville and Land Park Dr, Sacramento
NO. 680 MURPHY'S RANCH - This is the site of the beginning of the United States' conquest of California. On June 10, 1846, American settlers led by Ezekial Merritt overpowered Mexican soldiers under Lieutenant Francisco Arce and took their horses from the corral of the Murphy Ranch on the north bank of the Cosumnes River. The 'Bear Flag' action in Sonoma followed on June 14, 1846.
Location: Near SW corner of Grant Line Rd and Hwy 99, Elk Grove
NO. 697 FIVE MILE HOUSE-OVERLAND PONY EXPRESS ROUTE IN CALIFORNIA - Departing at 2:45 a.m. from the Alta Telegraph Co. in Sacramento, rider Sam (Bill) Hamilton carried the first mail of the Central Overland Pony Express eastward on April 4, 1860. Quickly changing ponies at the Five Mile House, he sped on to the next stop at Fifteen Mile Station.
Location: On campus of California State University, 6000 "J" St., left on State University Drive East to Guy West Bridge over-crossing and plaza. Plaque located in plaza, Sacramento
NO. 698 FIFTEEN MILE HOUSE-OVERLAND PONY EXPRESS ROUTE IN CALIFORNIA - Owned and operated from 1857 as a stage station by Henry F. W. Deterding, this was the site of the second remount station of the Central Overland Pony Express during March-July 1860. Sam (Bill) Hamilton, carrying the first eastward mail of the Pony Express, changed ponies here on April 4, 1860.
Location: White Rock & Gold Valley Rds, 0.2 mi E of intersection of Sunrise Blvd and White Rock Rd, Rancho Cordova
NO. 702 FOLSOM-OVERLAND PONY EXPRESS ROUTE IN CALIFORNIA - Gold rush and railroad town, Folsom became the western terminus of the Central Overland Pony Express on July 1, 1860. During its first few months, the express mail had been run by pony to and from Sacramento, but beginning July 1, 1860, the Sacramento Valley Railroad carried it between Sacramento and Folsom until Placerville was made the terminus.
Location: 819 Sutter St near Decatur, Folsom
NO. 719 GRAVE OF ELITHA CUMI DONNER WILDER - This survivor of the ill-fated Donner party was the daughter of George and Mary Blue Donner. Born near Springfield, Illinois in 1832, she arrived in California in December 1846 with her sister, Leanna Charity Donner, and was rescued by the first relief party to reach the tragic scene. Married to Benjamin W. Wilder in 1853, she died on July 4, 1923, survived by her sister and two children.
Location: Elk Grove Masonic Cemetery, Row C, Lot 2, Elk Grove Blvd, Elk Grove
NO. 745 THE COLOMA ROAD-SUTTER'S FORT - Sutter's Fort, established by Capt. John A. Sutter in August 1839, marked the western end of the Coloma Road. Opened in 1847, this road ran from the fort to Sutter's sawmill at Coloma. Used by James W. Marshall in January 1848 to bring the news of the gold discovery to Sutter, it was traversed later by thousands of miners going to and from the diggings. In 1849 the Coloma Road became the route of California's first stageline, established by James E. Birch.
Location: NE corner of 28th and L Sts, Sacramento
NO. 746 THE COLOMA ROAD-NIMBUS DAM - Alder Springs, south of this point, marks the old Coloma Road, running between Sutter's Fort and Cul-luh-mah (Coloma). Established in 1847, this road was used by James W. Marshall in January 1848 to bring the first gold from Sutter's Mill to the fort. Later, traveled by thousands to and from the diggings, it became the route of California's first stageline, established in 1849 by James E. Birch.
Location: From Hwy 50, go N on Hazel Ave, take first rd to right, plaque located in Nimbus Flat Boat Launching Facility, Lake Natoma, Folsom Lake State Recreation Area
NO. 780 FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD - Here, on January 8, 1863, Governor Leland Stanford turned the first spade of earth to begin construction of the Central Pacific Railroad. After more than six years of labor, crews of the Central Pacific Railroad from the west and the Union Pacific Railroad from the east met at Promontory, Utah where, on May 10, 1869, Stanford drove the gold spike signifying completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Central Pacific Railroad, forerunner of the Southern Pacific Company, was planned by Theodore D. Judah and constructed largely through the efforts of the 'Big Four'-Sacramento businessmen Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Charles Crocker, and Mark Hopkins.
Location: Old Sacramento State Historic Park, Sacramento, California State Railroad Museum, rear lounge area
NO. 780-8 FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD-WESTERN BASE OF THE SIERRA NEVADA - On January 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln decreed that the western base of the Sierra Nevada began where the Central Pacific Railroad crossed Arcade Creek. The hardships of railroad construction through mountains resulted in increased government subsidies that gave the company impetus to finish the transcontinental railroad.
Location: Haggin Oaks Municipal Golf Course, N side of clubhouse, 3645 Fulton Ave, Sacramento
NO. 812 OLD SACRAMENTO - Founded in December 1848 by John A. Sutter, Jr., Sacramento was an outgrowth of Sutter's Fort established by his father, Captain John A. Sutter, in 1839. State capital since 1854, during the gold rush it was a major distribution point, a commercial and agricultural center, and terminus for wagon train, stagecoach, riverboat, telegraph, pony express, and the first transcontinental railroad.
Location: Old Sacramento State Historic Park, plaque located on wall at 2nd St between J and I Sts, Sacramento
NO. 817 SITE OF FIRST COUNTY FREE LIBRARY BRANCH IN CALIFORNIA - Through the efforts of Miss Harriet G. Eddy, then principal of Elk Grove Union High School, in 1908 Elk Grove acquired the first county free library branch in California. Subsequently, California's county free library branch system has become one of the most outstanding in America.
Location: 9125 Elk Grove Blvd, Elk Grove
NO. 823 GOVERNOR'S MANSION - This mansard-styled Victorian house was built for Albert Gallatin in 1877. Acquired by the State, it served as the first official Governor's residence, Governor George C. Pardee and his family moved in during November 1903. It was home for 13 Governors over a span of 64 years.
Location: SW corner of 16th and H Sts, Sacramento
NO. 869 SITE OF FIRST AND SECOND STATE CAPITOLS AT SACRAMENTO - Sacramento's first County Courthouse, formerly located on this site, served as California's State Capitol from January 16, 1852 to May 4, 1852 and from March 1, 1854 to May 15, 1854, when it housed the third and fifth sessions of the State Legislature.
Location: NW corner of 7th and I Sts, Sacramento
NO. 872 CALIFORNIA'S CAPITOL COMPLEX - The historic Capitol was designed by architects M. F. Butler and Ruben Clark. Its style is an adaptation of Roman Corinthian architecture. Work began in 1860 and by late 1869 the Capitol was partly occupied. In 1874, construction ended at a cost of $2.45 million. The west wing which once housed all branches of government is now a legislative facility. Its design and construction are tributes to California's pioneer architects, craftsmen, and builders.
Location: E of intersection of 10th St and Capitol Mall, Sacramento
NO. 900 NISIPOWINAN VILLAGE SITE - This was the location of the most significant Indian village and cemetery of this region. The Nisipowinan, part of the Maidu tribe, had a strong economic and cultural interaction with Capt. John A. Sutter's settlement in the 1840s.
Location: Address restricted per Section 6254.10 of the California State Government Code, Sacramento
NO. 934 TEMPORARY DETENTION CAMPS FOR JAPANESE AMERICANS-SACRAMENTO ASSEMBLY CENTER - The temporary detention camps (also known as 'assembly centers') represent the first phase of the mass incarceration of 97,785 Californians of Japanese ancestry during World War II. Pursuant to Executive Order 9066 signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, thirteen makeshift detention facilities were constructed at various California racetracks, fairgrounds, and labor camps. These facilities were intended to confine Japanese Americans until more permanent concentration camps, such as those at Manzanar and Tule Lake in California, could be built in isolated areas of the country. Beginning on March 30, 1942, all native-born Americans and long-time legal residents of Japanese ancestry living in California were ordered to surrender themselves for detention.
Location: Walerga Park, NW corner of Palm Ave and College Oak Drive, Sacramento
NO. 967 CALIFORNIA ALMOND GROWERS EXCHANGE PROCESSING FACILITY - The California Almond Growers Exchange, founded in 1910, was the first successful grower-owned cooperative for marketing California almonds. It pioneered in many fields, including almond production, mechanization, and marketing. The first structure on this property was built in 1915 and was designed to mechanize almond processing. This shelling plant was one of the earliest structures of its type, and contained the world's first mechanical cracker.
Location: 1809 C St, Sacramento
NO. 991 STATE INDIAN MUSEUM - The State Indian Museum was built fifty years ago as California's first state-run museum devoted to Indian cultures. It continues to serve the same purpose today, displaying an updated (1984) major exhibit on California's Indian peoples.
Location: 2618 'K' St, Sacramento
NO. 1013 SITE OF THE FIRST AFRICAN AMERICAN EPISCOPAL CHURCH ESTABLISHED ON THE PACIFIC COAST - This is the site of the first church building associated with an African American religious congregation on the Pacific Coast. The church was the Methodist Church of Colored People of Sacramento City, formally organized in 1850. In 1851 the congregation was admitted into the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming the first African Methodist Episcopal Church on the Pacific Coast. First known as Bethel, the name was later changed to St. Andrews. The original 1850 wooden church building was the site of the first statewide convention of the California Colored Citizens which met November 20-22, 1855.
Location: 715 Seventh St, Sacramento